Architectural Wonders: The Art of Dome Structures
Introduction to Domes
A dome is a common architectural structure, the shape is similar to the upper half of a hollow sphere, not all domes are completely spherical in cross-section, some will also be oval, domes have a very long history in architecture.
Structural Principles of Domes
The structural principle of the dome is based on the principle of arcs, which are constructed of a series of arcs, the center point of the dome is the highest point, called the vertex, and the edge of the dome is the lowest point, called the edge.
The shape of the dome can be hemispherical, oval, cylindrical, etc., and different shapes of domes require different structural techniques.
Components of Dome Structure
The structure of the dome consists mainly of two parts, the skeleton and the covering. A skeleton is the supporting structure of a dome, usually made of materials such as steel, concrete, or wood.
The overlay is the external protective layer of the dome, usually made of glass, steel plate, aluminum plate, and other materials, and the skeleton and the overlay also need to add heat insulation, a waterproof layer, and other materials to ensure the dome’s insulation, waterproof and other functions.
- Material selection for the dome:
The choice of dome material is very important, it directly affects the stability, safety, and aesthetics of the dome, in general, the skeleton material of the dome can be steel, concrete, or wood and other materials, and the overlay material can chosen FRP plate, aluminum plate, and other materials.
Steel is a common dome orthopedic material, it has high strength, and corrosion resistance, and can withstand large loads, concrete is a heavyweight dome skeleton material, that has high strength, durability, and other characteristics, and can withstand larger loads, wood is a lightweight dome skeleton material, it has good thermal insulation performance and aesthetics, but need to pay attention to anti-corrosion treatment.
Glass is a common dome covering material, it has the characteristics of transparency, beauty, etc., but pay attention to explosion protection and sun protection. Steel plate is a kind of solid dome overlay material, it has the characteristics of corrosion resistance, wear resistance, etc., but needs to pay attention to anti-rust treatment, aluminum plate is a lightweight dome covering material, it has good corrosion resistance and aesthetics, but need to pay attention to anti-corrosion treatment.
- Features of dome structure buildings:
The most basic typical dome structure building is the church, just like the temple of ancient Greek art, most of the people of that era were strongly religious, and it was entirely natural that the church became the main building, and the church was the richest and best-equipped place at that time.
The design and construction of dome-style buildings are predominantly circular, with curved structures covering the space.
The aesthetic view of the dome structure is that of a large and complex building, emphasizing dark contrasts and allowing light to shine through small holes, but the decoration of the building is relatively simple.
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